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Williamson’s basic idea is that intuitive judgements are a certain kind of counterfactual judgement — judgements of certain counterfactuals. This is supposed to dispense with the need for a special causal-psychological explanation of intuitive judgements, but without a special causal-psychological explanation there is no way to sustain (any interesting form of) rationalism.

More precisely, he argues that the content of an intuitive judgement is a certain counterfactual or subjunctive conditional (step 1). He writes as if this entails that our capacity to make intuitive judgements is just ‘an application of our general cognitive capacity to handle counterfactuals’ (2). That, in turn, is supposed to show that these judgements are not formed by means of any special-purpose capacity or mechanism — for example, a faculty of rational intuition (3). Some rationalists invoke such a faculty to explain how intuitive judgements are formed, and what makes them reliable and justified. 10 Williamson’s point is that the motivation for this move falls away once we accept that intuitive judgements are counterfactual judgements (albeit in disguise): there is no need to postulate a faculty of rational intuition — or any other special psychological machinery — to account for the existence and the epistemic status of intuitive judgements, since there is a perfectly ordinary cognitive capacity already in place to do the job: our general capacity to handle counterfactuals.

Next, he argues that this general capacity is not ‘exclusively a priori’ (4), by which he just means that not every justified judgement that the capacity delivers is a priori justified. This should be uncontroversial — many, perhaps most, of our counterfactual judgements are not capable of being a priori justified (e.g. my judgement that if I had made the supper it would have been inedible). But he then goes on to argue that there is no principled way to single out even some such judgements as a priori — at any rate, there is no such way that ‘cuts at the cognitive joints’ (5). Last, he claims that any a priori/a posteriori distinction that fails to cuts at these joints is of little theoretical interest (6). Ergo: there is no (theoretically) interesting sense in which intuitive judgements are a priori (7). 11

In summary: Unless specified, I will be working with a loose but standard notion of a priori justification — as justification that is suitably independent of the subject’s perceptual experience. 14 One might wonder what it takes for a notion of a priority to be of ‘theoretical interest’ (see step 6), but it would take us too far afield to discuss that here. And there is no pressing need to do so, since our main focus will be on the first three steps of the argument. More precisely, my agenda is this: in what remains of the first section, I clarify step 1, and explain the related problematic; then I argue that 1 is false — that intuitive judgements are not counterfactual judgements — and I go on to propose an alternative analysis. In section 2 , I defend that analysis against a number of objections and competing views (e.g. that they are metaphysical necessity judgements of a certain kind, and that they are fictional judgements). In section 3 , I return to Williamson’s argument and argue, on independent grounds, that there is no plausible reading of step 2 on which it supports 3: that we do not have a ‘general capacity to handle counterfactuals’ of the sort that is needed for the argument to go through. This objection also blocks a potential fallback manoeuvre — a structurally similar argument against rationalism that does not rely on the contentious step 1 (indeed, one that is compatible with the analysis that I propose). At the very end of the paper, I briefly discuss some of the considerations that Williamson gives in support of step 5. One upshot of that discussion is that the argument may not, after all, be an argument from on high.

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The suggested explanation is compatible with the possibility proposal. And recall that it has the distinct advantage — over the explanation that necessity * provides — of applying in the situation where the problem case is actual, as well as in the situation where the case is hypothetical. It is highly implausible that our intuitive judgement about the actual case is a disguised modal judgement; a better explanation of the commitment it incurs is that the judgement is based on reasons of a certain generality. But if that is the right thing to say here, when the problem case is actual, surely it is also the right thing to say when the case is hypothetical: my intuitive judgement about the hypothetical case is also based on reasons, reasons of a certain generality — presumably, at least in part, the very same reasons on which my judgement about the actual case is based.

However, it is controversial to suggest that intuitive judgements are based on reasons —  any reasons. One might even worry that this makes the explanation I have outlined a non-starter, since those judgements are supposed to play a foundational role in philosophical methodology. 50 Now, it is not clear to me that that supposition is correct  —  that said, it is worth noting that the claim that intuitive judgements are reason-based is, at least in principle, compatible with the claim that they play a foundational role. The key feature that makes a judgement or belief fit to play that role is that it is non-inferentially justified (or non-inferential, for short)  —  roughly: that its justification does not rest on the justification of any of the subject’s other beliefs. And it is possible for a judgement to be both non-inferential and based on reasons, as long as not all reasons are themselves beliefs (or belief contents) — that is, as long as there are at least some ‘non-doxastic’ reasons. 51 This principled compatibility would still only be of marginal interest, in the current context, if the kind of explanation of the rational commitment that I outlined above required a doxastic construal of reasons. But, at least on the face of it, it does not require that. 52

Second, it is in fact independently plausible — although not widely recognized — that intuitive judgements are based on reasons. The guiding thought here is just this: in making the Gettier judgement, we are (loosely put) attributing justified true belief without knowledge to a subject who stands to a proposition in a certain peculiar way — namely, the way that is specified in the given case description. Indeed, on reflection it seems clear that we are attributing those properties to her in part because we take her to stand to a proposition in that peculiar way. Unless we took her to be thus situated, we would not — and we should not — judge that she has a justified true belief but does not know. (Recall and compare the example above: my judgement about Anna.) Of course, since the problem case is hypothetical, there is no actually existing subject to whom we are attributing anything — all of the above must be paraphrased. But the present point can be appreciated independently of any particular solution to the content problem. (And the point applies equally to the situation where the case is actual, and no paraphrases are called for.) 53 In brief: an intuitive judgement is always made in response to a specific case description, and it seems very plausible that the thought experimenter’s exposure to that description has more than causal significance — specifically, that (some or all of) the information that is explicitly stipulated in that description constitutes a reason for her to make a certain intuitive judgement. (If what I argued above is correct, then the stipulated information at best constitutes some or part of her overall reason(s), but that is all one would expect.)

Replies

  1. February 07, 2013

    Reply

    Myles if you turn on your pump and you hear the regular sound coming from the motor but you don’t have any water flow coming out of your jets you will want to check on a few things:

    1. If you just did a drain and re-fill on your spa you may have an airlock. Open the union a bit to the front of your pump that operates the jets and release the air or if the pump is connected to a topside massage selector shut off the pump and open the the massage selector nut a bit to release the air.

    2. Open the union on the pump that operates the jets. Look for debris clogging the impellor or a broken impellor.

    3. Make sure your water level is a minimum 3/4 of the way up your skimmer or filter housing.

    4. If you have adjustable jets make sure each individual jet is in the ON position.

    5. If you are in a freezing climate check the line that comes off the discharge side of the pump. Make sure there is no freezing in this line.

  2. Doug Garman

    November 10, 2013

    Reply

    Hot tub has sat for awhile, and during some freezing temps. I may have had water setting in the lines… Just replaced the pumps and refilled the tub, and all the sounds react as if it’s working but not one jet works except the bottom return jet.

  3. November 10, 2013

    Reply

    Doug what is the make and model of your spa and the date built? If you have a serial number that could also be useful in answering your inquiry.

  4. Michael Tolley

    August 05, 2014

    Reply

    I have a problem with my hot tub has 2 jets and a blower jet 1 works fine jet 2 the other side of hot tub is not working makes a noise but nothing flowing through.. Has 2 setting press once and it’s carm then press it again and it’s mega powerful now i have nothing.. Any1 suggest anything? Going to look inside tmro see if any1 I can see anything noticeable?

  5. August 06, 2014

    Reply

    Michael what is the make and model of your spa? If you also can let me know what is the date built of the spa this could help me answer your inquiry. All of this info should be on the indentification sticker near your Sentry Control Box where the main printed wiring assy is if you have a Sundance Spa.

  6. Bob Hunt

    September 22, 2015

    Reply

    Sundance Certa 2011 Jets pump 1 working erratically. When I press the button it sometimes does not turn on and pressing again the high level works, press again and most times the low level works. It works ok for the normal filtration cycle.

    • Nigel

      September 22, 2015

      Reply

      Bob, the pump working on filteration cycle likely means the pump and PWA is fine and you may have a bad topside panel. Check that the cable is still intact and hasn’t been severed by a rodent. If the cable is good try a new panel. If all else fails contact your local Sundance Support Desk to book a diagnostic and repair of your Sundance spa.

  7. scott

    Hello, I have bubbles, I have water coming out the jets. But when I push the jets button, it kicks the breaker. I have a flo-master pump (230volt)(8.5amp)(1725/3450rpm). It has high and low speed. Is there any way I could repair this pump?

    • Nigel

      May 15, 2016

      Reply

      Scott check to see that the motor shaft is not stiff or stuck. If the shaft is freewheeling and the GFCI trips immediately after you try to apply power to that pump have a look at the start capacitor. You can test it with an old style dial multimeter or you can just try a new one. If that doesn’t work you likely have a bad motor. You can try and take the motor to a re-build shop but you might find a rebuild doesn’t last as long as a new replacement. Visit our online parts store to check for availability on new pumps. To source your profile of pump it is helpful if you send us a picture or two as well as the horsepower, voltage, how many speeds ie 1 speed or 2 speed and FR size. Click on this link Outlet Order Dusty Blue Floral Strappy Wrap Dress Pretty Little Thing Outlet Supply Free Shipping Ebay Outlet Shop OAuUnVT
      then click on parts and accessories and then click on the big yellow button prices and availability.

  8. Jackie

    September 04, 2016

    Reply

    Half of the jets are not working on my spa and then on one of the handles to turn the jets on or off sounds like there is a whole bunch of water flowing through it. Have you ever heard of this before. Thank you!

    • Nigel

      September 04, 2016

      Reply

      Jackie what make and model spa do you have and what was the date built of the spa?

  9. Harrison Cubbage

    September 07, 2016

    Reply

    Hot tub was working fine until I drained and filled. Have loosened the unions to eliminate possibility of air lock. I am getting power to both of my pumps from the control panel but it only makes a clicking sound and the control screen shows everything is normal however heater or jets not running.

    • Nigel

      September 08, 2016

      Reply

      Harrison what make and model spa do you have? This info can be found on the id sticker near the Sentry Control Box.

      • Harrison

        September 08, 2016

        Reply

        Hawkeye Galaxy 2003 model. Gecko controls M series

        • Nigel

          September 08, 2016

          Reply

          Harrison try pushing water through the main intake with your garden hose with a rag wrapped around it with the unions loosened and the pump on hi speed. If all else fails contact your local Spa Support Desk to book a diagnostic and repair of your Spa.

          • Harrison

            September 08, 2016

            Through the intske where the feet sit or where the filters sit?

          • Nigel

            September 09, 2016

            Where the filters sit.

  10. Mike T

    Hi. I have an old Beachcomber with a powersource 2400. The pump has its regular speed then when you push the button it goes on high. I believe its early to mid 90’s. It sat for awhile before we purchased the house. The jets never really seemed to work great but they worked. Now after this latest fill up i have a few jets that dont come on at all and the ones that do dont seem to do as much as they used too. The water is curculating but there is definetly something wrong. Any ideas?

    • Nigel

      October 31, 2016

      Reply

      Mike check that your filter is not soiled. Remove it for a few minutes from the spa and see if the jet action improves on hi speed with no filter. You could also check that each jet is turned on. Those models typically had jets that could be turned on or off by grasping the jet itself and rotating. You could also check your pump housing to see if there is any blockage in the impellor housing.

  11. Mike Thompson

    November 02, 2016

    Reply

    Hi Nigel thanks for the reply. The basket filter is good and clean and all the jets are cranked open. Some jets spit and sputter and some dont work at all. Its very odd. Would i need to drain the tub again to locate and check the impellor? I heard concerns that the impellor may be damaged so it doesnt push enough for all the jets but i would expect they would atleast bubble a little rather then not at all. Thanks for your time. Ive called beachcomber before and i think they dont have any old timers left that even know my old system lol.

    • Nigel

      November 02, 2016

      Reply

      Mike you could have an air lock. All spas have a cartridge filter similar to an air filter in an automobile. The filter you should be looking to clean is the one under the basket. When you pull out the basket there may be a suction plate under it. Under the plate would be the cartridge filter that may be soiled and preventing good flow. Some of the older Beachcomber models had a piggyback set of filters stacked on top of each other with a draw string to reach the lower filter. Some just had the one filter. If it is soiled it could also create an air lock upon fresh filling the spa. If you have any isolation valves before and after the pump you could cut the power to the spa, close the valves and undo the unions to the pump to access the impellor. If the isolation valve seals are worn out the valves may leak and you may have to drain the spa if that’s the case.

  12. Justin Trotti

    December 03, 2016

    Reply

    Hi, I have a Sunrise Spa (Came with the house…I believe its a 2007 model).

    No paperwork was left. It has been working for years, however, recently I noticed it was tripping the breaker. After a few days I noticed half of the jets stopped working. Now – a few weeks later – I am getting a AFP – FLO error code. I have tried draining and refilling the hot tub, however, the same error code shows. When I press the jet 1 button, I am hearing a struggling sound coming from the pump area. When I press the jet 2 button, nothing happens. There are no longer any working jets.

    Any advice?

    • Nigel

      December 04, 2016

      Reply

      Justin check to see if your circulation pump is either plugged up in the impellor assy or locked up in the motor. If the circ pump is not operating it could produce the FLO message. A locked up pump could also cause the GFCI breaker to trip. The pump motor could need a new start capacitor or the motor itself could be on the way out. If all else fails contact your local Spa Service Support Desk to book a Diagnostic and Repair of your Sunrise Spa. If you are in a winter climate region protect your Spa with a space heater until help can arrive to either service the spa or winterize it til the weather is conducive for a repair.

      • Justin Trotti

        December 04, 2016

        Reply

        Hi Nigel,

        Thanks for the reply! I was able to get inside the hot tub today. Turns out it is a 2008 Sunrise Spa Meridian Model. There looks to be 2 pumps. The one that is hooked up to “jet 1” makes a struggling sound when pressed but does not actually activate the jets. The one that is hooked up to “jet 2” makes a clicking sound but does not turn on. The pumps look identical (Waterway Executive 56 Spa Pump PF-40-1N22C).

        In your opinion…if this pump is in fact locked up as you suggested, would this cause the other pump not to work as well?

        • Nigel

          December 05, 2016

          Reply

          Possibly. Check to see if you have a smaller 3rd pump. If you do not then Jet 1 may be causing the FLO msg.

  13. cindy lanz

    Are the directional jet circles just attached to the shell of the hot tub

  14. Frank

    May 18, 2017

    Reply

    Hello,

    I have a 2003 Del Sol Redondo Spa. Just replaced the 2 speed pump. The low speed circulates when bringing the spa to temp, but I get no jets to come on at all when I press the button on the electronic display. All of the other buttons work fine ( light, temp up, temp down) just no functionality with the button for jets. Any troubleshooting advice would be appreciated.

    Cheers,

    Frank

    • Nigel

      May 18, 2017

      Reply

      Frank check your connections from the pump wires to the PWA. Follow the schematic on the back of the Sentry Control Box for where the 3 wires should go. The coorisponding wires should also match at the back of the pump motor ie hi on the pump motor and hi on the PWA. There should be a wire schematic on the pump motor as well if you acquired it from an authorized dealer. If this all checks out and you hear the relay click when you press the button for the jets pump you could have a bad PWA. If you would like a link for availability and pricing on a PWA send me your serial number of the Spa.

      • Hello,

        Confirmed that the wiring is correct. Low speed comes on when the spa is coming up to temp, then turns off automatically when temp is reached.

        I do not hear a relay click when I press the button for the jets. I do hear a relay click when turning on the lights ( these are working). Any additional troubleshooting or thoughts?

        Frank

        • Nigel

          May 19, 2017

          Reply

          Frank if your wiring checks out and you don’t hear a relay click when you press the jets button you could have a bad topside control or a bad PWA. Plug in a new topside control. If the jets don’t work with a new control you could have a bad PWA. If you would like a link to prices and availability on topside controls and PWA’s send me the serial number of your spa.

          • Frank

            May 31, 2017

            Nigel,

            Just wanted to thank you sincerely for your advice. I replaced the topside control and it fixed my problem. I really appreciate your help and expertise.

            Cheers,

            Frank

          • Nigel

            May 31, 2017

            Your most welcome Frank. Enjoy the rest of your summer. Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AquaTechWpg

  15. Nigel

    May 26, 2017

    Reply

    Rob what make and model of spa are you looking at and what is the serial number?

  16. Lisa

    May 27, 2017

    Reply

    Hi I have a Pinnacle DX5000 spa. A dr error came on. Called out support. We found a leak in the pump and they also said it seized up so I bought and installed a new pump. Fill and and turn it on and pump primes then it eventually shuts off with same dr message. Before the error came on I did try turning on the jets and I heard the pump click but nothing. So I bled the intake and outtake lines of the heater and still same error. Now I also got an Sn error alternating with a very inaccurate temp reading then back to dr and kicks off. I am at a total loss.

    Lisa

    • Nigel

      May 27, 2017

      Reply

      Lisa a dr msg means a dry fire of the circulation system. Depending on the model of spa pak you have the dr msg could be preceded by the pr msg meaning priming. Depending on the configuration of spa pak you have you can sometimes depress the mode and or jet pump button to exit out of pr mode and directly to circulation mode. Make sure your circulation mode is set for Standard or 24hr mode. Something could be plugging the circ line or you could just have a nasty air lock that has to be purged. Try running the spa briefly without a filter and run your garden hose nozzle on full through the filter intake or circ line intake port. You could also try to purge air from the circ line by opening up the suction side union to the circ pump. Or if it has a clamp on hose, loosen the clamp and pull the hose slightly away from the pump til the air purges out. An Sn error means a sensor is indicating a potentially bad sensor or bad connection from the sensor to the PWA. Check your connections from your sensors to the PWA for any breaks in the wires. Typically an Sn error message is followed by a number to indicate which sensor is sending the message to the PWA ie Sn1, Sn2, Sn3 etc. If all else fails contact your local Spa Support Desk to book a diagnostic and repair of your spa.

  17. Tom

    August 15, 2017

    Reply

    I have a ’98 Sundance Altimar. Had a FLO error and confirmed the smaller recirc pump was bad. Replaced and all operation was normal. A week later, the 2 speed pump was sounding normal, but the jet volume was down. A day later, the FLO error came back. I haven’t opened it up yet to troubleshoot further. I do see significant air bubbles from the 2 speed jets. The heater is working and the recirc return port also has a lot of bubbles. I replaced the recirc pump without draining the tub…clamped the tubing before and after, then swapped the pumps. I’m hoping I find a lose connection at the input of the recirc pump, or, I have an airlock somewhere possibly related to the recirc pump change. I hope I don’t have a damaged (new) recirc pump…

    • Nigel

      August 15, 2017

      Reply

      Tom try pulling out your filter for 5-10 min and running the 2 speed pump without to see if the FLO message goes away. Make sure you have no large debris that can get sucked in the inlet port for that 5-10 min. Also make sure the 3 suction socks bottom of the spa are not soiled.

      • Finally opened up the tub to do some troubleshooting. 1. removed the filter and ran the 2 speed on high for 10 minutes. Jet volume still feels low for the 2 speed. FLO error returned. The second jet pump runs normally with high water volume at all the jets. Can the second pump performance rule out a dirty filter?…seems it would. 2. put the multimeter on the flow switch. power off, switch is open, power on, FLO error, switch is open. pump 1 on, heater comes on and switch is closed. 3. put the multimeter on the recirc pump. no voltage in any scenario. (small piece of good news in that the new recirc pump may still be fine. is there a bench test I can do to confirm that?) 4. took the leads off the flow switch and connected them briefly. FLO error continued. no voltage to the recirc. Temperature set point is always above water temperature in all tests. I’m fearing this is a board problem related to the flow switch. 5. trying to address the low volume from pump 1…loosened the unions on pump one. no air noises…waited for some water, then tightened back up. loosened the clamps on the recirc. no air noises…waited for some water, then tightened back up. UGH! I’m looking for a smoking gun somewhere here! I think this is two different problems. I plan on draining the tub and inspecting the recirc and pump 1 impellars. I’ll also look at the pump switch, but I’m afraid that may be a board issue. A lot of stuff here…any guidance is very appreciated1

        • Nigel

          August 21, 2017

          Reply

          Tom you first wrote here that with power off the switch is open and with power on you have a FLO error and the switch is open. With power off the switch should be closed. If this is the case you could have bad Flow switch or bad connection to it from the PWA. You also wrote pump 1 on, heater comes on and switch is closed. If the heater is engaging you would not see a FLO msg. Low flow from the jet 1 pump side of the spa with the filter out could mean you have blockage in that line or a plugged impellor. If you would like a price and availability on a Flow switch send us the serial number of your Altamar Spa.

          • Tom

            August 21, 2017

            Thanks Nigel. About the flow switch status…open switch indicates the mechanical part of the switch located in the water/pipe, is not physically touching, correct? With no power on the spa, there’s no water flow of any kind, wouldn’t the switch be open? You’re correct about the pump 1 on condition…the FLO error goes away. (FLO error returned, after the no filter/pump 1 test was completed). What do you think of the recirc not getting voltage? …is it waiting on the flow switch? Is the diverter valve for pump 1 jets a possible issue? I’ll send the serial number later today. Thank you again.

          • Nigel

            August 21, 2017

            Tom another way to explain Flow switch testing in multimeter terms: With the paddle not touching the post you should have a reading on your ohm meter of infinite. With the paddle touching the post you should have a reading of continuity. If you do not have these readings you could have a bad Flow switch or connection from the PWA. If you have the spa in standard mode and the circ pump set to run 24hrs you should have 240v at the circ pump assignments on the PWA. If you do not you could have a bad PWA.

  18. Denise Murphy

    September 21, 2017

    Reply

    My jets run during the regular cycle turn on but when i go to turn them on on the panel they will not run

    • Nigel

      September 22, 2017

      Reply

      Denise what is the serial number of your spa? This can be found on the id label near the Sentry Control Box.

  19. Marieanne

    September 26, 2017

    Reply

    The circulating pump works fine but the jet pump just clicks and nothing! Do I need to change the jet pump Orvis there something I can try first . It’s a sunrise spa

    • Nigel

      September 27, 2017

      Reply

      Marieanne check for voltage on the PWA at the jet pump points after you have activated the jet pump with the button on the topside control. If you don’t have voltage here or less voltage then 240vac +/- 10% you could have a bad PWA. If you do have correct voltage here you could have a bad pump or a locked up pump motor. Also check the wire from the back of the pump motor to where it connects to the PWA or the control box. Check it for any breaks or cuts.

  20. Andy Gigg

    October 27, 2017

    Reply

    My pump works and I can see water coming through the jets but when I turn the jets on, the temperature dial flashes and the pump switches off. The dial then shows an error code of what looks like Sn. Any idea what the problem might be??

    • Nigel

      October 27, 2017

      Reply

      Andy what’s the make, model and serial number of your spa and also is there a numeral following the SN msg ie SN1, SN2 or SN3?

      • Andy Gigg

        October 28, 2017

        Reply

        Hi Nigel, We have taken a look and I have the following for you: Make: Ocean Mirage Model: 390KCL10J DIE Serial #: C95DX1460 It’s certainly an older hot tub. I believe it was manufactured in April 95 As for the fault, it’s either 5n or Sn. There are no numbers after the n

        • Nigel

          October 28, 2017

          Reply

          Andy take a look at the temp and hi limit sensors and the wire connections from the sensors to the PWA for breaks. Usually the SN msg is indicating an issue with one of the sensor connections or sensor.

  21. Tracy Thompson

    November 24, 2017

    Reply

    I have a Acura power Station, the controller turns off when the Jets are turned on, also when the heater is turned on a load humming noise comes from the controller. I already replaced the pump.

    • Nigel

      November 24, 2017

      Reply

      Tracy double check the connections from the pump to the pak connections. Pay close attention to the hi and low speed wires if it is a 2 speed pump and make sure they match up ie the connections on the back of the motor with the connections inside the pak. If you have these wires crossed it could cause the pak to malfunction. If the contactor is engaging in the pak when you turn on the heater it could be making a humming or buzzing noise. This is quite typical alot of the time on electromechanical paks. Sometimes surge suppressors or varistors are available to cutdown the decibel level of the contactor depending on the brand of contactor.

    • Nigel

      November 24, 2017

      Reply

      Approx how old is the Acura power station Tracy?

    • Nigel

      November 24, 2017

      Reply

      If the pak has a timeclock it is also worth checking the settings to make sure it is set to run the pump during the time interval that you manually activate the pump.

  22. Laura

    December 04, 2017

    Reply

    I have an older series 500 beachcomber tub. Absolutely love it. It was drained and sitting emoty for a year. I cleaned it. Pulled all the jets off and flushed it 4 times. Filled it and it runs fine jets run well but no air from them. One was kind of burping air for a bit but nothing at all now. Any suggestions?

    • Good evening Laura. For the venturi to be able to work when you open the air controls you do need all the jet faces you removed to be reinstalled completely. If they are not in yet please do that and it may solve the no air. If that doesn’t work you will want to check the back of each jet face you removed for the condition of the gaskets. If it is an older Beachcomber model it probably has Waterway jets. Some Waterway jets came with snap on gaskets and some came with slip on gaskets. If these are in poor shape the jet face will not make good contact with the rear of the jet and the air induction to the spa will be poor or non existent. Also check the inside of each jet body on the spa to make sure there is no debris stuck in the body’s that your flush job couldn’t release. The jet faces themselves could be soaked in a warm water and vinegar solution as well to remove any deposits. Just make sure to rinse thoroughly after soaking. If you require new gaskets or new jets send us a picture of the jet faces to partsdept@aqua-tech.ca and we can send you a purchase link. Sometimes the whole jet face is easier to come by then the gaskets depending on what region your in.

  23. San

    December 11, 2017

    Reply

    On an ’06 Great Lakes Manitou, I noticed water temperature drop since winter’s freezing temperatures have arrived. The JETS light on display panel is alit but no jets run. I can hear system trying to start up. If I press JETS button, high speed jets kick in. When I press JETS button again, the low speed commences and jets and heater start working. Any ideas?

    • Nigel

      January 30, 2018

      Reply

      San it sounds like you could have a bad start capacitor on that one pump.

  24. Kimberley Parish

    December 26, 2017

    Reply

    Nigel, can you help? I have a 2010 Clearwater St. Andrews spa with ISIS system. Circulation pump and Jet Pump #1 are not working. No fuses are blown. When you switch Jet Pump #1 with Jet pump #2 the pump works in #2 so it is not the pump that is the issue. The spa was not recently refilled so airlock is not the problem. Control panel clicks when you press the topside control but pump does not come on. Any suggestions?

    • Nigel

      January 30, 2018

      Reply

      Kimberley if you hear a click on the PWA when you press Jet pump 1 check for voltage with your multimeter where Jet pump 1 plugs into when you press that button. If you have no voltage there you could have a bad PWA.

  25. Pam Smith

    January 27, 2018

    Reply

    Hi, I turned off the power to my hot tub to drain it. Cleaned it w ginger, refilled it w water turned it back on. I can feel the hot tub on but the panels on top of the hot tub (to turn the jets/etc on) will not come on. Please advise.

  26. Cynthia

    Hi! I have a sunrise spa posoideion model. It is about 5 years old and In November the hot tub overheated. I powered down by fuse inside house and when I powered back up pump 2 was running continuously. When i pressed pump two on topside panel it would say it is off but jets would keep running full speed and would overheat again. Eventually the fuse for pump 2 blew and without pump 2 working the hot tub would stay at 40 degrees C (104 F). When we replaced the fuse for pump 2 it did the same thing. Ran full force all the time. We then disconnected pump 2 and tub seems fine. But the topside panel is still reading the pump 2 when 2 is pushed. Originally was told that this was a temp sensor issue which on my model we would have to replace the heating element with the sensor. I purchased that part but now the person who told me that it was that part says now it is not. Can someone tell me if they have any idea what would be the issue here. Sound like a pump 2 issue? A topside panel issue? or sensor issue?

    • Nigel

      January 30, 2018

      Reply

      Cynthia it sounds like pump two runs to some capacity. Also sounds like the topside panel works to some capacity. First you would want to check that the hi-limit sensor is in the correct position and sensing the temperature of the water inside the heater. The hi-limit sensor is different then your temp sensor. Hi-limit sensor position changes from spa model to spa model. Most of them have the sensor tucked in against the outside of the heater manifold. Some of them have the sensor inserted into a dry well inside of the heater. If this sensor is not inserted in the dry well completely and or tucked tight against the manifold then it could be sensing more ambient air temperature then water temperature. If the air temperature is cold then it could be turning on the jet pump for freeze protection reasons. The same applies to the temp sensor. You want it sensing water temperature and not air temperature. If these two sensors check out to be ok then you could have a bad PWA or a stuck pump relay on the PWA. PWA is your main circuit board or motherboard.

  27. Tim

    February 01, 2018

    Reply

    I recently had my impeller replaced on my emerald elite pump #1 for the second time in 3 days because every time I turn on the second pump for some unknown reason pump #1 locks up and blows out the impeller and water shoots out the back of the impeller and the guy at the spa store has no explanation of why and he doesn’t know what could be causing the issue. It’s gonna get super cold out tonight so I put a light in the cabinet to hopefully stop some of the pipes from freezing. Any input would be appreciated.

    • Nigel

      February 01, 2018

      Reply

      Tim it sounds like you could have a problem in the wet end of the pump. Something is binding in the wet end. I would suggest replacing the pump motor complete rather than taking a chance on repairing the pump again if you are in a region where there is overnite and or daytime freezing temperatures. Are you in the US region or Canada?

      • Tim

        February 01, 2018

        Reply

        I am i Michigan and it is cold tonight. So you think the shaft is warped or something? Am i looking at a couple hundred dollars? And if so i sure dont want this too happen again especially in this cold as this is my favorite time to enjoy my hot tub.

        • Nigel

          February 01, 2018

          Reply

          Tim there perhaps could be an issue with the shaft. Also could be the way the volute is seating against the eye of the impellor or the way the yoke of the impellor is threaded onto the shaft of the motor. Also could be an issue how the mechanical seal is installed. Cost wise it depends on the horse power of the pump and the model/profile. I’m in Canada but if you would like a price on a new pump I’d be happy to quote you on one. I would need the voltage of the pump, hp rating, FR size, whether its a 2 speed or 1 speed pump, current rating on low and hi speed and a picture of the wet end side of the pump so I can see what profile it is. Preferably a couple of pics. All the ratings ie FR size and voltage can be taken off the motor nameplate. You can send the info and pics to parts@aqua-tech.ca

        • Nigel

          February 01, 2018

          Reply

          If you are going to leave the spa with water in it and not circulating in freezing conditions I would consider placing a small space heater in the equipment bay on a low setting and perhaps put a small submersible pump in the spa shell to keep the water turning over til you can address the pump not working. Check the space heater periodically.

  28. Anthony Calek

    February 19, 2018

    Reply

    I was wondering if you could help me with a problem on my hot tub? The heat works, I hear it cycle from time to time but when I go to sit in it and run the jets, it will run for a cycle and then shut off and won’t get anything again. When I push the button I can hear it clicking but nothing. If I wait a few hours I can go back and run the jets again but just for one cycle. It’s an old QCA spa. Thanks

    • Nigel

      February 26, 2018

      Reply

      Anthony is it a digital spa pak on that old QCA spa. If so what model pak is it ie Balboa, Gecko etc? Or is it a electro-mechanical pak. If so what model? How many pumps do you have and do you have a dedicated circ pump?

  29. Jeff

    February 26, 2018

    Reply

    My 2014 Cal spa checked to button is not working all of a sudden. Jet one button works fine

    • Hi Jeff. Check to see if you can hear a relay click on your PWA or if you hear any noise from the motor when you press jet 2. If you hear a click but no noise from the motor check for voltage on the board at your jet 2 test points. If you have voltage then you could have a bad start capacitor on the motor, a bad motor and or a blocked or locked up pump impellor. If you don’t hear a click and you have no voltage you could have a bad PWA. Also check your cable from the topside control down to the PWA for any breaks in the cable. Check your power feed wire from the jet 2 motor to the PWA for breaks, burnt connectors etc.

      • Power yes but no clicking or other noises. Just doesn’t start.

        • Nigel

          February 26, 2018

          Reply

          If you have power at the jet 2 points on the board you could have a bad jet 2 motor. If you don’t have an area to bench test it and it’s a 240v motor you could wire it direct to your incoming power terminal block at the spa if your incoming power is the same voltage as the motor rating. If it still doesn’t run with that test I would try and rotate the shaft to see if the shaft is stiff. Try to loosen it up back and forth if it is. If the shaft is free wheelin then you could have a bad start capacitor and or motor. Most motors keep the capacitor under the hump cover on top of the motor. Some hide it behind the bell end motor cover to the rear.

  30. Josh

    March 28, 2018

    Reply

    Hello, I have a 2008 Creative Spa Design hot tub. The jets worked (except one motor), we drained it and then we refilled the tub. Now none of the jets work and it’s not pushing eater. I’m getting error code FL-1. I need to replace the filters still, but the old ones were still in decent condition. What could be the issue? Thank you, Josh

    • Nigel

      March 29, 2018

      Reply

      Josh other things that can cause FL1 are a plugged or bad circulation pump, low water level, plugged or bad Flow or pressure switch. Sometimes filters develop a greasy surface deep in the pleats. This is sometimes not easily detectable on first look and can cause an FL1 message. I usually as a first step to rectify an FL1 message pull out the filter and run the spa for a short time without the filter ie 5min to see first if the message goes away. If it does not then I know I need to diagnose further.

  31. Josh

    March 30, 2018

    Reply

    Nigel,

    Thank you. I’ll check it out. I think one of the pump motors is bound up or burned out. If one pump isn’t working, could that make all the pumps not work? Thank you,

    Josh

    • Nigel

      March 30, 2018

      Reply

      Josh one pump not working wouldn’t make the others not work. If your circ pump was not working that would keep the spa from heating and could give a flow error message. If one of the pumps locks up and the thermal cutoff switch does not engage than that pump could potentially trip your GFCI or worse. If you have no plans to service or replace that pump I would recommend disconnecting it from your PWA. The trouble with keeping one pump off all the time is there will be a certain amount of water in the pipes hooked up to that pump that will not get circulated properly. This can potentially cause issues with your water chemistry down the road.

  32. Josh

    Nigel,

    First of all, thank you! You’re information has sent me in the right direction. I appreciate it. I’m going to have a professional look at it and see where we need to go. This type of work is way out of my scope. Thanks again, Josh

  33. Pam Smith

    April 04, 2018

    Reply

    Hi Nigel, any suggestion from you will be greatly appreciated.

    • Nigel

      April 04, 2018

      Reply

      Pam it sounds like you may have a bad topside control. Check the ribbon cable from the topside down to the circuit board for any breaks. If the cable looks ok try to disconnect the cable from the circuit board and re-connect it. If the cable looks ok and the connection is ok try a new topside panel.

  34. Tracy John

    April 04, 2018

    Reply

    I have a Maxx Infiniti hot tub model Atlantis that I am having issues with, it only has 1 pump. Scenario is: when I turn the hot tub on the high jets come on and stays on until the desired temperature is reached. Then it shuts down and the low pump will not start. When I push the jet button it makes a clunking noise, and the low pump will not start. If I push the jet button a second time it starts on high. Any ideas where to start trouble shooting?

  35. Kev

    April 17, 2018

    Reply

    Hi

    I have a HA440NG 2 speed pump that sounds like it isn’t running 100% perfect on its first speed. I have a balboa control panel. But if I double press Jets 1 and then Press again (to turn it back to speed 1) the normal circulation works well. But it will never start on the first circulation speed without me doing this. Does this mean an air lock?

    • Nigel

      April 18, 2018

      Reply

      Kev it sounds like you have water movement on both speeds so it doesn’t sound like an airlock is in play here. It sounds more like an automatic function or a programming scenario. Many of the control boxes out there activate the hi speed on a one pump spa or a spa where the 2 speed pump is the circ pump as a initial purge cycle. Eventually the pump switches to low speed and then depending on how your programming cycles are set it will stay on low for that cycle setting.

  36. Mike Smith

    April 23, 2018

    Reply

    Hi Nigel,

    I just replaced the pump and motor on my tub and it now comes to temp just fine and Jet 1 works great on low and high. The problem is Jet 2 isn’t blowing on either high or low. When I hit the button, I can hear the motor running each time, but nothing is coming out of the jets.

    Could this be an airlock issue? The spa is a StrongSpas

  37. Don H

    April 28, 2018

    Reply

    Nigel I have a 2015 Caldera Spa Paradise Series Martinique Spa that was moved from a friend house. Was working fine prior to move but had not been run all winter. Filled tub and control panel turns on. Lights work and it seems there is some low circulation occurring (can see it in the water). Push on “jets” button and I only hear a “click” but nothing more. I have opened the pipes and fairly sure there is no air lock. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks. !

    • Nigel

      April 29, 2018

      Reply

      Don it could be the spa needs to get up to temperature first. Some models lock out the jet pump function til the temperature gets closer to set temp. Wait for the spa to be within 15 degrees of your set temp. If you are at set temp and the jet pump still doesn’t work but you hear a relay click from the board you may want to check for voltage at your jet pump set points on the board with your multimeter. If you don’t have proper voltage there with the jet button calling for the pump then you could have a bad board. If you do have proper voltage you would want to check your wire from the pump to the board. If the wire is good you could have a bad capacitor or a bad pump motor.

  38. Roger

    April 29, 2018

    Reply

    I have a Catalina spa, from early 90’s. All waterway jets replaced, new motor and impeller. I have little to no pressure on all jets except one. I also connected a shop vac. And blew all airlines out. Any clue to the low pressure and no air bubbles at the jets?

  39. Roger

    April 30, 2018

    Reply

    Thanks for the reply , I have a new filter installed also I went around and closed all jets except one and the pressure was good. I did that to all jets and it seemed ok. Opening all jets at once its low pressure at jets. Could not find a jet diverter and no massage selector. Maybe all jets shouldn’t be open at the same time.

  40. Adam

    May 05, 2018

    Reply

    Hello,

    I have a bullfrog spa with the bf05 board. It had a bad m7 temp sensor. I replaced it but now nothing happens when I hit the jets 2 button. The icon doesn’t even show up. It has always worked before. I checked dip switch a3 and it is on for two 2 speed pumps. I was in test mode the other day and I am worried i may have inadvertently disabled it there. But now Balboa service website is down,.so I cant get the manual for test mode. Any ideas?

    Thanks. Adam

    • Nigel

      May 05, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Adam. I would try resetting your dip switches to where you need them and then resetting persistent memory first.

  41. Adam

    May 05, 2018

    Reply

    Hello. I have the dip switches where they should be for a 2 pump spa. When I push the “jets 2” button, nothing happens. I dont mean with the water flow or board. I mean nothing. The icon doesn’t even show up on the screen.

    • Nigel

      May 05, 2018

      Reply

      Try the persistent memory reset procedure.

  42. Adam

    May 05, 2018

    Reply

    I have looked through the thread and cant find the procedure on how to reset the persistent memory. Can you please elaborate.

  43. Jonathan

    May 13, 2018

    Reply

    Just bought a house that came with a hot tube… I didn’t use it when we got it but would turn the jets on every so often to make sure hot tub was working. Today I drained/cleaned my tub. Once I filled it back up and turned it on, no water was coming out of the jets. I primed it by the filter primer (nothing happend) so I tired all 3 unions and still nothing.. now I don’t know what to do. Any help?? Thanks

  44. Dan

    Hello Nigel, I have an old Jacuzzi Whirlpool outdoor hot tub and it’s not heating and the jets are not working. I’ve drained and refilled it, and loosened the unions at the pump to release air. Still not working. It has a Balboa Instruments H136 control panel and a one button topside panel. When I turn up the temperature dial I hear a click and the pump comes on. I don’t think this has a circ pump or a high limit switch, as there is nothing connected to the high limit spot on the control board, and I don’t see a circ pump. I also do not thing it has an ozonater. The only time the red temp light comes on is a minute or so after you restore power at the breaker, and then it just stays lit for a few seconds. The fuses look good and I’m cleaning the connections now (there is some corrosion). What else can you suggest?

    • Nigel

      June 04, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Dan. First make sure your filter is clean or new and your water is at operating level or higher. If that all checks out have a look around for a psi/flow/or float switch that may be malfunctioning.

  45. Nichole Lichtley

    June 02, 2018

    Reply

    Hi Nigel, my husband is trying to get the hot tub up and running that came with our house we bought last year. Gatsby 65 6 person. They must have replaced the control panel to a different digital model at some point so it is not the manufacturer CP, but works great and no error codes. All is working great accept half of the jets… the set of jets on one of the lounges and another set right next to that one on the seat jets as well as the center foot jets. We don’t know if it is airlocked or if the air switch/knobs are malfunctioning. Any suggested steps to figure this out would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!!

    • Nigel

      June 04, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Nichole. If all the pumps are running check the jet faces that they are turned on. Lots of spas out there design the jet faces to turn on or off by rotating them counterclockwise or clockwise. If that checks out see if you have a topside massage selector diverter. These have diverter gates in them. Make sure it is directed to the section of spa you want flow to go to. If it is and still no flow you may need to power down the spa and take the selector apart to see if the gate is damaged. And yes an airlock would also present those symptoms. Loosen the unions on the suction side of the pump that supplies flow to those jets if you feel there is an airlock. Loosen the union long enough to release the air. You will lose some water. If this all checks out you may want to inspect the impellor of the pump that supplies flow to those jets. If it is plugged this could be causing this symptom as well.

  46. Chris

    June 10, 2018

    Reply

    Hi I have a 2005 beachcomber 530 series. The pump is running with no errors on the display and the jets won’t work. I refilled it recently and it has been working. I turned the jets off to adjust down the neck massage jet and now the Jets won’t turn back on. Heater is working. Thx

  47. lou

    June 16, 2018

    Reply

    I have a hydraulic spa and bought a pump that was locked up and now my jets just came on and locked up help

    • Nigel

      June 18, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Lou. If the pump locked up you will need to determine if the impellor has blockage or is binding in the wet end. Best way to do this is to take the front face of the pump off to inspect it and see if the shaft is freewheelin. If the shaft is freewheelin with the front face off the wet end and turns under power then you know it is binding in the wet end if there is no blockage in there. If the shaft is still locking up you may have a bad capacitor and or motor.

  48. John Boswell

    June 17, 2018

    Reply

    I have an old Emerald spa, I think from the late 80s. The recirculating function is working, along with the heat and the air bubble blower, but when I press the jets button, it just buzzes and the jets don’t work. It hasn’t been drained recently, so I don’t think it is airlocked – any hints where to start looking?

    • Nigel

      June 18, 2018

      Reply

      Hi John. It sounds like you could have blockage in the pump impellor. Open the pump up to have a look. If it checks out you could have a bad motor capacitor and or bad motor.

  49. Doug Myles

    June 17, 2018

    Reply

    Viking spa model galaxy, 03092722, pump and inside tub light cycle on and off every 1 second. Top 4 sprayers throw water with this cycling on and off. Breaker good, water level good. Can see relay on top piping before motor click on and off with motor and lights. Topside digital readout flashing 100 then 54 (refill water temp?) And it appears I have no control over this(push buttons, nothing happens). This is obviously not normal. I’m worried consistent on and off will burn something up. Any suggestions?

    • Nigel

      June 18, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Doug. If your water level checks out try disconnecting your smaller remote topside panel if you have one. If you only have one topside control panel you could have a bad PWA ie circuit board.

  50. Kirsten

    Hi there,

    We recently moved into a house that had a hot tub. It’s a Four Winds Grand Bahama 0610-13135. The panel has two levels of jet. The lower level is the one we have use, pretty much exclusively, because there is a small leak in the waterfall feature that causes water to spill out of the spa. Recently, the lower level seems to have stopped working. The middle button that activates the lower level jets still turns on the pump, but it seems as though 2/4 of the jets aren’t working (it basically looks like it does when it is cycling to clean the spa). I can hear what seems to be a pump trying to turn on, but it does not change the amount of water going through. I have cleaned the filters, and have not recently emptied the spa. Any suggestions would be most appreciated.

    • Nigel

      June 23, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Kirsten. It sounds like that one pump may have an air lock. When you press the button and it turns on have a close listen down near the pump to see if it sounds normal. If it is just making a buzzing noise and doesn’t sound like a motor running then it could be locked up and have a mechanical issue. If it sounds like a motor running you could have an air lock or blockage in the line or an issue with the impellor. Make sure all of your jets are turned on individually at the jet face.

  51. Lisa

    July 08, 2018

    Reply

    I recently opened my hot tub for the season. Worked fine last summer. Cleaned out added water. Now only half of the low speed jets are working. The button to control high speed …I just hear a “click” but nothing. I press again and it will go back to the low speed but only half of the jets. Please help. Also my hot tub heats up good. But I have a leak coming from the tube the holds the heating units. I put a temp patch.. but can this tube be replaced? The pressure gadge sits on top. Please advise . Thanks

    • Nigel

      July 09, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Lisa. Sounds like you could have a bad circuit board or a bad pump. Check for proper voltage at the hi speed test points on the board after you press the hi speed button. If you don’t have proper voltage here you could have a bad board. If you do have proper voltage you could have a bad pump. The heating manifolds can be replaced. What’s the make and model of your spa and what is the serial number? We could direct a link your way for a new manifold with that info.

  52. KISHAN

    July 14, 2018

    Reply

    I have a jacuzzi tub and when I turned on its work for 30sec and then motel stop working I pull the motor out and test it its work good outside what do I have to do

    • Nigel

      July 14, 2018

      Reply

      Hi Kishan. What’s the model and serial number of your Jacuzzi spa?

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